At about 6 kilometers from the south of Tripoli, on the seacoast, stands an old mosque known by el-Baher Mosque (the mosque of the sea). According to the repeated stories of the Qalamoun’s habitants, it dates to more than 800 years ago, as it is stated on a plaque hung on the wall near the minbar, on which are graved three lines saying that it was constructed in 527AH/1132AC, that is during the reign of the crusaders over the coast of el-Sham. It was renewed by el-Sheikh “Ali Monallah el-Baghdadi” who died in 1192AH/1778AC. The mosque is composed of two large cylinders. Its walls are built with sandstones like Tripoli’s mosques. A prominent cornice decorated by geometric designs surrounds the upper end of the exterior wall. A new minaret stands above the mosque. In that mosque, the Imam, the savant el-Sheikh Mohamed Rashid Rida used to isolate himself in order to compose and publish “el-Manar”.
2-Ain el-Jami’ prayer hall
It is located on the seacoast, to the south of el-Baher Mosque. According to the repeated stories of the Qalamoun’s habitants, it dates from the crusader wars period. The Muslims built it at a fountain near which they used to be stationed waiting for the Jihad. Later, the place was transformed to a place for prayer, then to mosque that was called el-Ain Mosque (mosque of the fountain). Its mihrab is still standing in its antecedent façade, and an association has transformed the place to a school for teaching religion.
Near Beshmezine church, in el-Koura, stands the mosque of the small town, in a quiet district, in the middle of a pine trees forest. The people of the town say that it was built hundreds of years ago, at some tens of meters from the Muslims cemetery where stands a dome on which is fixed a marble plaque holding the name of “Jamal ed-Din Shayha”. It holds the date of “1287”. This name belongs to one of the Emirs stated in the popular biography of the sultan el-Zaher Baybars. As for the date graved, it goes back to two years before the liberation of Tripoli from the Europeans by the sultan el-Mansour Qala’un (1289AC). The mosque was renewed only four years ago. A dome and a huge minaret were erected above it. Its location near the church of the town ensures the good relation between the Muslims and the Christians, and the closeness of living under the belief in One and Only God.
4-Barbar Mosque in I’al
At about 5 kilometers to the east of Zgharta in the province of el-Zawiya, in the quiet I’al, the village relaxing between the olive trees, stands the mosque of “Mustafa Barbar Agha”, the governor of Tripoli, which he built over a hill near his strong fortress in 1230AH/1814AC as it is stated above its door, which is also the date of finishing the construction of the fortress. Near the mosque lies the tomb of “Mustafa Barbar” who ruled the States of Tripoli and Latakiyat el-Arab for about 30 years.
1-The Great Mosque El-Mansouri
It is the largest mosque of Tripoli and Lebanon. It was built at the order of the sultan “el-Ashraf Khalil Ben Qala’un” in 693AH/1294AC in el-Nouri district. The sultan “el-Nasser Mohamed Ben Qala’un” built the porticoes surrounding its exterior courtyard in 715AH/1315AC. It has four doors, two of them in the east side, one in the west side, and one in the north side. This latest is the biggest. It is decorated and holds a historical inscription, as well as it is surmounted by the four-floor-Moroccan-style minaret. The mosque has two mihrabs: a big one and a small one, and a wooden minbar embellished with wonderful geometrical designs, which was built at the orders of the Emir “Shehab ed-Din Qaratay” in the year 726AH/1326AC. In the middle of the mosque’s courtyard, there are an ablution fountain and the prayer hall that is surmounted by a sandstone vault. At the western gate, a defensive tower was erected in order to protect the mosque, and under the western portico stands the “room of the prophetic noble trace”, where a hair of the beard of the prophet, God’s blessing and peace be upon him, is placed and visited by believers in the month of Ramadan (ninth month of the lunar year).
2- Tainal Mosque
At three minutes of walk from “al-Nour” square, at the northern entry of Tripoli, stands the most beautiful and majestic mosque of Lebanon, the mosque of the “Emir Saif ed-Din Tainal el-Hajeb” (el-Hajeb = the Chamberlain). He built it in 736AH/1336AC outside the city in the middle of the gardens, and it is now surrounded by buildings. It consists of a marble courtyard with four rooms where were held the meetings of Tripoli’s cadis (magistrates) during the Mamluk age: Shafiite cadi, Hanafite cadi, Malekite cadi and Hanbalite cadi. The mosque has two prayer halls; the first one is surmounted by a large dome standing on 4 Byzantine Corinthian capitals, over 4 huge granite columns brought from the Pharaonic Egypt. The marble ground of the courtyard is covered with geometric designs. The two prayer halls are separated by a gate that is considered the most beautiful with its decorations, inscriptions and splendor. It competes with the most beautiful gates of the Mamluk Egyptian mosques. As to the second prayer hall, it contains a mihrab, and a wooden minbar that was made by “Mohamed el-Safadi, the master artisan” in 736AH/1336AC.
The minaret of Tainal Mosque is unique in both the Arabic and the Islamic worlds. It contains two stone stairs, one leading to the inside of the mosque and the other one leading to the outside. They are superposed in a way that the visitor entering the mosque does not meet the person who is leaving.
This minaret looks like a castle’s tower or like the “castle” of the chessboard.
It is one of the most beautiful mosques and madrasahs in Mamluk Tripoli. It is located in Bab el-Hadid district, on the west bank of the river. One can have access to this mosque from the castle of Tripoli in less than five minutes of walk. It was built by “Isa Ben Omar el-Burtasi el-Qurdi” around the year 710AH/1310AC to be a mosque and a madrasah for those looking for religious education. Its construction combines many architectural features; its Andalusian style minaret stands over a half-dome in a way that its huge construction came out in a miracle that defies the theory of space and weights. Its mihrab is distinguished from all the other mihrabs of Lebanon by the gold mosaics and miniatures that represent a cup from which stick out leafy branches reminding of the façade of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus. This mosque is also characterized by a huge cupola, under which stands the marble ablution fountain.
On the road between “Khan el-Khayyatine” (caravansary of the sewers) and “Suq Haraj” (the auction market) stands the mosque of “Badr ed-Din El-Attar” which he built under the supervision of the senior architect of his time “Abi Bakr Ben el-Bousais el-Baalbaki” around the year 716AH/1316AC. He inscribed his name above the western door. The mosque was later widened and the colorful marble minbar, as well as the eastern door were built in 751AH/1350AC by the master “Mohamed Ben Ibrahim, the architect”. The mosque has a third door in the north side, above which stands its huge minaret. The western door is considered to be the most impressive door of the mosque. It is surmounted by a wonderful square plaque of marble decorated with different ornamentations, miniatures and geometric designs of different colors.
It is a reduced reproduction of the Great Mosque el-Mansouri. Located in “el-Dabbaghah” district near khan el-Asqar (soldiers caravansary), this mosque was built at the orders of the sultan el-Nasser “Mohamed Ben Qala’un” around the period in which the porticoes of the Great Mosque were built in 715AH/1315AC. It had an external courtyard with an ablution fountain in the middle that was removed a few years ago, but which dome is still standing on four pillars. The minaret stands at the northeastern corner of the portico. The mosque has two doors: eastern and northern. It also contains two inscriptions: the first one is at the southern entry of the portico, graved during the reign of the Mamluk sultan “el-Mou’ayyed Sheikh el-Mahmoudi” in 817AH/1413AC, and the second dates back from the Ottoman period, during the reign of Tripoli’s governor “Hussein Ben Yussuf Pasha Saifa”. It states the date of its reconstruction as 1021AH/1613AC.
6-Sidi Abdel Wahed Mosque
It is the smallest mosque of Mamluk Tripoli, to the east of “Suq el-Attarine” (perfumers market), built by “Abdul Wahed el-Meknasi” from Morocco in 705AH/1305AC. He graved the construction date on a plaque with Moroccan naksh (graved writing). This mosque is famous for its small and little elevated minaret, as well as for its simple dome surmounting its Moroccan style mihrab. It consisted of a small prayer hall and an external courtyard with an ablution fountain in the middle that was removed about 25 years ago. Later on, the courtyard was roofed and added to the prayer hall. On the right of the mosque’s entry stands the Maqam of a Sufi, “Abdul Salam el-Meshishi”. People until today put branches of Myrtus Communis (kind of plant people put on tombs) at the window overlooking the road. Above the mosque, there is a corridor with several rooms in which Moroccans live up to now.
7-Arghoun Shah Mosque
In the district of “Saff el-Balat”, on the road leading to the main cemetery of Tripoli in “Bab el-Ramel”, the mosque of the Emir “Arghoun Shah” was built during the reign of this latest between 796-800ah/1393-1400ac. It is distinguished by its cylindrical minaret that is different from all the other square Mamluk minarets. It stands above the eastern door holding the inscription of a decree issued by the sultan “Qaytbay” in 880ah/1475ac. The mosque has a western door too.
In the quarter of “Kahwet el-Hettah” (café of the quarter) in “el-Haddadine” district, stands the Tahhan Mosque above a series of shops. To have access to this mosque, the visitor should climb stairs. Neither its founder nor its foundation date are exactly known, even though It is a Mamluk style as shown by its minaret made of wonderful decorations and splendid architecture, though It is not that high. In the courtyard of the mosque, there are four huge granite pillars surmounted by four Corinthian capitals holding the dome like in Tainal Mosque.
At the southern foot of Tripoli’s castle, on a hill known by “Suq el-Samaq” (fish market), in Bab el-Hadid district, stands the Ouwaysiyah Mosque named after a Sufi sheikh called “Ouways el-Roumi”. It was originally a small Zawiya during the Mamluk age; then it was transformed to a mosque by the Na’ib (governor) of Tripoli and its castle, the Emir “Haydara” in 941AH/1535AC. He registered that date above the cylindrical Ottoman style minaret. The dome of this mosque is considered to be the largest dome in Tripoli.
Near the gate of “el-Tabbaneh” that opens on “Suq el-Qameh” (wheat market), “Mahmoud Beck el-Sanjaq” built his mosque in 1027AH/1617AC and wrote his waqfiya (foundation act) in 1029AH/1619AC. The mosque’s minaret was destroyed by a thunderbolt and rebuilt by “Obeid el-Ish” in 1295AH/1879AC. This is why it came out to be similar to the minarets of Ottoman Istanbul.
Located at about 100 meters from the Tahham Mosque to the south, this mosque was built by the Emir “Mahmoud Lutfi el-Za’im” on top of a passageway in 963AH/1556AC, hence its name “el-Mu’allaq” which means the “Hanging” as the visitor can have access to it by a flight of stairs built in 969AH/1562AC according to the inscription graved above. The minaret is octagonal adjoined by a small dome above the door. In the eastern side of the mosque is a garden in which lies the tomb of the Emir and stands his deserted castle.
It is located in the Suq el-Nahhasine (market of the coppersmiths). Its founder is unknown. It is likely to date from the crusader age. The Muslims had transformed its tower to a minaret similar to the one of the Great Mosque but minimized. Its upper top was removed at an unknown date.
It is located in the alley of Sidi Abdul Wahed Mosque. Its foundation date is unknown. It had been ruined, so the merchant “Ahmed Ben Barawanah” destroyed it and rebuilt it in 1163AH/1750AC, and later, the sheikh “Abdullah el-Bahaa el-Halabi” renewed it in 1234AH/1819AC. It includes a cemetery for the sheikhs of el-Nakshabandiya (Sufi sect) and has no minaret.
14-Hamidi el-Balad Mosque
In el-Nasarah district, to the west of khan el-Asqar, stands an old mosque called “Al-Toffahi”. Its foundation date is unknown. It was deserted and ruined during the Ottoman period, and then vivified at the orders of the sultan ”Abdul Hamid the Second” in 1310AH/1812AC. Hence, it was named “Hamidi el-Balad” as there was another mosque holding his name in el-Mina’.
15-Mosques of the castle
Inside the castle of Tripoli, there are three mosques. The first is octagonal and belongs to the Fatimid age of the AH fifth/AC eleventh century, and near it are the remains of a minaret. The second is the Great Mosque of the castle, built by “Mustafa Agha Ibn Iskandar Pasha el-Khanjarli”, the governor of Tripoli during the reign of the Ottoman sultan “Selim the First” in 924AH/1518AC. The third is the mosque of “Mustafa Agha Barbar”, the governor of Tripoli. He built it in 1216AH/1802AC.
It is in front of el-Mashhad and el-Shamsiyah madrasahs. It was built by the sultan el-Naser “Hasan Ben Mohamed Ben Qala’un” between 755-762AH/1352-1359AC, who graved his emblem above the door. Its eastern façade was decorated with piebald stones.
It is the oldest Mamluk madrasah in Tripoli, built by the magistrate “Shams ed-Din Ahmed Ben Atiyah el-Iskandari” to the left of the main door of the mosque El-Mansouri, in 697AH/1298AC. It has a vault made of pads above its exterior door, and above it stands the magistrate’s house, which is considered the oldest Mamluk house in Lebanon.
It is the largest and most splendid religious madrasah in Tripoli and in all Lebanon. It is adjoined to the east of the Great Mosque el-Mansouri.
Built by the emir “Qaratay” in 726AH/1326AC, its northern door is considered the most sumptuous door of the Mamluk architecture in Egypt and in el-Sham. The façade of its southern wall is one of the richest walls in inscriptions. Eight decrees issued by Mamluk sultans are graved on this wall, as well as Koranic inscriptions and the names of the Prophet, the Orthodox Caliphs and the Companions of the Prophet promised the Heaven, with the emblem of the Emir, and a lot of wonderful ornamentations.
It is located in the middle of Suq el-Saghah (market of the jewelers). Its gate is one of the most beautiful gates with its geometrical designs shaped like rays, its muqarnas, its ornamentations, its andalusian style window and its vault made of pads above its mihrab. It was built in the eighth century AH/fourteenth century AC.
20-Madrasah el-Set Hosn
Near el-Nasiriyah, it was built by Mrs. “Hosn”, the sister of Tripoli’s governor, the Emir “Asandamor el-Qurji” in order to bury her husband the Emir “Qotlubaq” when he died in 716AH/1316AC. She registered her waqfs (endowments) above the door.
It is located at the beginning of Suq el-Saghah, in front of Hammam el-Nouri. Built by the emir “Sonkor Ben Abdullah el-Nouri” between 705-710AH/1305-1310AC, it contains one of the most splendid mihrabs of Tripoli. It is decorated with miniatures and marble embellishments. The Emir “Tormish Ben Abdullah el-Dawdar” built a tomb in the eastern side of this madrasah in 800AH/1398AC and engraved his emblem, “the butler”, on the iron enclosure of its window.
Across the street from madrasah el-Khatouniyah was built the madrasah el-Saqraqia by the Emir “Saif ed-Din Aqturuq el-Hajeb” (the Chamberlain) before 760AH/1358AC. Its façade is decorated with a long bar on which is graved its waqfiya (foundation act) with Koranic inscription, as well as the Emir’s emblem, “The Sword”. Inside this madrasah is a mausoleum surmounted by a lobed dome, ornamented with Koranic inscription graved with the decorated Mamluk calligraphy, and an embellished plaque from the outside.
It is located under the gate of “el-Mahaterah” stair that leads to the castle. It was built by “Mohamed el-Succar” in 766AH/1364AC as it is registered above its door. Its façade overlooking the stair holds Koranic inscription graved above its windows. A marble mausoleum holding Koranic inscription lies inside.
It is located near Arghun Shah Mosque. Built by the Emir “Izzeddin Aydamur el-Ashrafi”, his wife bequeathed to be buried there and graved her waqfiya on the façade of the door in 773AH/1371AC. The madrasah itself was built in 775AH/1373AC. On its façade was graved the emblem of the butler, “The Cup”.
Near the hammam of “Izzeddin” stands the madrasah el-Qadiriyah. It is one of the largest madrasahs of Mamluk Tripoli after el-Qartawiyah. It has two doors, eastern and western. The eastern door is the main one and it is decorated with ornamentations. To its right stands the room of a mausoleum on which is graved the date of 769AH/1367AC.
It is located on the road of “Taht el-Sibat” (under the archway) between the castle and el-Bortasi Mosque. It was built in 799AH/1397AC by the Emir “Taghri Baramsh el-Zahiri” to be a cemetery for his two sons. Above its door is a plaque stating that date and holding the emblem of the butler, “The Cup”.
Built by the Emir “Alam ed-Din Sanjar el-Homsi” a little after 724AH/1324AC, it is located in the middle of “el-Terbi’a” district.
28-The High Great Mosque
It is in the middle of the old el-Mina’ city. It was built over some stores at an unknown time during the Mamluk age. It was a small mosque to which one could have access by a flight of stairs. Then it was renewed and enlarged by “Abi Bakr Ben Mohamed Agha” in 1135AH/1722AC as it is graved on a plaque inside the ablution room.
It is across from el-Chamsiyah. Its founder is unknown. Its door is one of the most beautiful Mamluk doors. Inside the madrasah, there are plastery and marble ornamentations, as well as Koranic inscriptions and the emblem of the butler, “The Cup”. Its façade is embellished with lines of piebald stones.
Located in “Suq el-Islam” (market of the Islam), it was built by the Emir “Ala' ed-Din Aydghomosh el-Mardani” above a series of stores in 707AH/1307AC. One can have access to this madrasah by a flight of stairs. Above its door is a white marble plaque on which the construction date and the emblem of “The Cup” are graved.
*Other mosques in Tripoli: In Tripoli, there are other old mosques and madrasahs from the Mamluk and Ottoman ages. We mention: el-Khanqah Mosque, and the following madrasahs: el-Mahmoudiyah, el-Rifa’iyah, el-Qasimiyah, el-Cadi Oglo, el-Shouhada, el-Habbaq, el-Sanjaq (inside el-Ouwaysiyah Mosque), el-Shaleh, el-Sabbagh, el-Qarimiyah, el-Dahhan, el-Jawish, el-Sabsabiyah, el-Beshnatiyah, Takkiya el-Mawlawiyah, Takkiya el-Qadiriyah, el-Rajbiyah, el-Dabousiyah, el-Namel, el-Hizam, el-Afghaniyah.
In el-Mina’: El-Hamidi Mosque, Borj Brasbay Mosque, Madrasah el-Arrif.
1-El-Baddawi Mosque (in el-Baddawi)
At five kilometers from north of Tripoli, on the seacoast, stands the suburb of el-Baddawi, famous for its old historical pool that was admired by the European travelers, because of the big numbers of sacred colorful fish it contained. It was a recreation park visited by Tripoli’s habitants, neighbors and visitors from everywhere. Near the pool, the Mamluk Na’ib of the sultanate, the Emir “Damerdash el-Mohamadi”, built a zawiya above the mausoleum between 790-796AH/1388-1394AC. The historian “el-Sakhawi” mentioned that it was built on a roaring pool then it was widened in later periods to become the big mosque it is now. The old Mamluk wall is still standing till now.
2-El-Nabi Yusha’ Mosque and Maqam
On the western foot of Terbol Mountain overlooking the coastal town of el-Menyeh from the eastern side, which was named Leopards Mountain by the Holland traveler “Berkhard” in 631AH/1253AC, inside a rocky cave that is deeper than 15 meters and about one meter and a half of height, lies a mausoleum of 12 feet attributed to el-Nabi Yusha’ (prophet Yusha’). It is visited by worshipers of the people of the book: the Jews, the Christians and the Muslims, as some believe that it is “Yusha’ Ben Noun” mentioned in the Exodus, while some others believe that it is “Yousha’” the son of the prophet “Moses” (peace be upon him). What makes it more complicated is the presence of an old plaque on which the traveler “Abdul Ghani el-Nabulsi” graved in 1105AH/1693AC the following: “This is the tomb of the poor servant of God el-Sheikh Yousha’. It was built by the sultan el-Moktafi el-Salehi in Tripoli in 684AH”. This statement cannot be true as there was no sultan in Tripoli that year holding that name. On the contrary, Tripoli was still in the hand of the Europeans at that period. The Ottoman governor of Tripoli “el-Wazir Mohamad Pasha el-Qurji” built a sepulcher above the tomb in 1175AH/1763AC on which he graved two lines of poetry. Above the tomb, there is a stone tube across which runs the water falling from the roof of the rock. It is also said: if the water of the village diminishes, the water runs out from this tube by the strength of God the greatest. At the entry of the tomb, there is small hall prayer with a mihrab, and above the hall prayer and the cave stands a big mosque to which one can have access by a flight of steps. It dates from the Ottoman period. Tourists and visitors visit the place to ask for the blessings.
In the province of Akkar, where the high mountains vie in glory with their summits touching the sky, and the clouds wash their woods and versants, spread the cities, the villages and the towns that embrace the historical mosques standing on a river bank, in a wide plain or over a charming hill.
1-El-Sheikh Ayash Mosque
At the furthest point on the northern Lebanese borders, near the Syrian borders, in the village of el-Sheikh Ayash, stands an old mosque surmounted by a ribbed dome lying over an octagonal base in the middle of the praying hall. Its exact construction date is unknown.
On a wide land in el-Bireh town, near the old government house that was likely used as a fortress by the crusaders, stands el-Bireh mosque in the shadow of a big leafy tree. A half dome lies in its center on an octagonal base. Its minaret stands in the northern corner of the prayer hall, and above the mosque’s door is a plaque on which two lines of poetry are graved and under which lies some decorations inside which is graved the foundation date, 1300AH/1882AC. The mosque was built with the black volcano’s stones that exist in abundance in those lands.
3-Qobbet Bshamra Mosque
In the wide plain of Akkar, near the seacoast, and near el-Qolay’at Airport, lies a small town known as Qobbet Bshamra, embracing an old mosque that contains a rectangular mausoleum of about ten meters, and a mihrab standing in its southern side. The mausoleum is known by “Shahid el-Bahr” (the martyr of the sea). It is an old mosque of the Mamluk age as shows its dome.
The town of Mashha that is located in the south east of Halba, between el-Qobayat town and Berqayel town, is proud of the presence, on its land, of the Madrasah el-Hamidiyah and its huge library, built in 1311AH/1893AC at the order of the sultan Abdul Hamid the Second, to be a cultural and intellectual center, as well as a mosque for worshiping, after that “Osman Pasha Ben Mohamed Beck”, one of Akkar’s Emirs, had strove in order to achieve that. The portal of the madrasah is decorated with Ottoman monograms that hold the signature of the sultan Abdul Hamid, with some lines of poetry under which is graved the construction date.
In the village of el-Borj, in el-Joumeh region, the governor of Tripoli and Akkar “Ali Pasha el-Asaad el-Mere’bi” built a mosque inside a strong fortress in the huge joined governmental house. It consists of a huge hall with sandstone vaults on its sides similar to those existing in Tripoli’s mosques. In the middle of the hall, there is an immense pillar on the left of which stands the mosque’s door which vault is surmounted by a plaque on which are graved three lines stating the construction date, 1224AH/1810AC.
6-El-Zaher Baybars Mosque
In the town of Akkar el-Atiqa that was named after “Akkar el-Qouda’i” during the reign of “Marwan Ben el-Hakam” (64-65AH/684-685AC), stands the historical fort of Akkar that was built by the sultan el-Zaher Baybars around 670AH/1272AC, inside which he built a mosque and graved his emblem, “the lion”, on both the fort and the mosque. The fort was destroyed during the fight between Al Saifa (the Family Saifa), the governors of Akkar and Tripoli, and the Emir Fakhr ed-Din el-Ma’ni the Second who destroyed the fort and its surroundings and transferred its stones to Deir el-Qamar. The mosque was neglected since then and was about to become effaced. It is 24 kilometers from Halba and stands on a rocky hill between the two deeps valleys of Akkar el-Qadima that are the branches of the river el-Estouwan. The mosque’s mihrab is standing till today in the district of el-Tekkiyah, near the fort with the dome surmounting it. The inscription on the mihrab states that the mosque was renewed during the Ottoman period by the Emir of the province of Hamah at an unknown time.
7-Tekkiyat Akkar el-Atiqa
It was built by the governor of Tripoli and Akkar, the Emir “Yussuf Pasha Saifa” near the fort of Akkar and Qala’un Mosque, to be similar to the Tekkiyat “el-Darawish el-Mawlawiyah”. He graved his name and the construction date on a plaque fixed above the door’s vault and decorated by an embellishment of iris in 1007AH/1598AC. It has a wide vault, and it is built with alternating white and black stones (piebald) and is embraced by a cornice deeply set in the wall.
Near the pre-mentioned mosque of the sultan el-Zaher Baybars stand the remains of another Mamluk mosque in el-Tekkiyah district in Akkar el-Atiqa. It was built by the sultan “el-Mansour Qala’un” as shown by the inscription graved on a stone plaque and stating the following: “This blessed mosque was renewed during the reign of our master the sultan, the learned, the just, the invader, the warrior, the supporter, the triumphant, the supported, Seif ed-Din wa Dunya (the sword of the land and the religion) Qala’un el-Salehi”.
In the North Province, there are a lot of historical places for Islamic worship that are subject to destruction and effacement like Qaftoun Mosque that was built in the mamluk age, Daraya Mosque in the high and barren mountains of el-Daniyah, which belongs to the Fatimid age, Mazar el-Nabi Jacob in el-Daniyah near Assoun and Beit Jida, Ottoman Mosque of Syr, and others.